Clarification of terms

Definition: Under disinfection we understand the set of measures and actions serving for deactivation of microorganisms and making them harmless by applying physical, chemical or combined procedures. 

Reduction of pressure of the infection on the stabled animals is the main objective of mechanical cleaning and disinfection.
There are ca 1 billion of bacteria per 1cm2 of polluted area, mechanical cleaning reduces the bacteria from 1 billion to one million per 1cm2 and the correctly performed disinfection should reduce the number of bacteria up to 100 – 1000 per 1cm2.

Sanitation – the set of measures and actions incorporating destruction, inactivation or elimination of aetiological agents and their transmitters (disinfection or sterilization, disinsection and deratisation / DDD), elimination of sources of infections (removal of cadavers, etc.), elimination of odour (deodorisation) and treatment of the environment (civil part /building modifications, repairs of technology, etc.).

Decontamination – elimination of microorganisms from the environment and surfaces by all available methods; includes washing, cleaning, disinfection and sterilization.

Protective (preventive) DDD – the activity representing disinfection, disinsection, deratisation and deodorisation, being the integral part of working and manufacturing procedures to maintain the requested level of veterinary and hygienic care for the environment, and incorporating mainly the preventive actions. It is performed as the integral part of the anti-epidemic mode in each facility where we want to eliminate or at lest reduce materially occurrence of infectious diseases of the animals affecting their health and thus their yield.

Repressive DDD – disinfection, disinsection and deratisation performed to avoid spread of the infection in the focus as well as outside it; includes the continuous focal DDD and the final focal DDD (State Veterinary Administration of the Czech Republic, Ministry of Health).

Continuous focal DDD – performed as a rule as the partial action during the term of the infection   (State Veterinary Administration of the Czech Republic, Ministry of Health).

Final focal DDD – disinfection, disinsection and deratisation performed after expiry of the monitoring period as the final action in the whole focal area of the infection (State Veterinary Administration of the Czech Republic, Ministry of Health).

Biocides – biological and chemical products used for disinfection, disinsection and deratisation applied for elimination of microorganisms and macroorganisms and their development stadia; their permission is subject to special regulations.

Disinfection – set of actions and measures focused on elimination and removal of undesirable microorganisms from hard surfaces.

Disinfectants – products used for protective and repressive disinfection; they can be divided (by their effect and impact) into
 a)      microbiocide – render all microorganisms harmless
 b)      bactericide – render vegetative bacteria forms harmless
 c)      sporocide – render bacteria spores harmless
 d)      virucide – render viruses harmless
 e)      fungicide – render fungi organisms harmless.

Protective and repressive disinfection is usually performed after mechanical cleaning, during which chemical detergents are used as a rule.

Sterilization – rendering all microorganism forms harmless.

Asepsis – set of measures avoiding microbial contamination of the sterile environment.

Antisepsis – deactivation and elimination of microorganisms from skin and mucous membranes of live organisms, using registered [1] or approved2 disinfectants (antiseptics)

Disinsection – actions for extermination of harmful arthropods, incl. their development stadia.

Disinsection products (insecticides) – substances used for extermination of arthropods in the environment or on animal bodies (ectoparasitics).

Deratisation – actions for extermination of arthropods, mainly rats, mice and field-mice.

Deratisation products (rodenticides) – substances for targeted extermination of one or more arthropod species.

Bait – material (usually feed, fodder and/or liquid) luring arthropods.

Lure – bait mixed with the deratisation product.

[1] Act No. 79/97 Sb., on drugs and on changes and amendments of certain related acts.